Articles

The method of controlling the process of ion exchange water softening

The method of controlling the process of ion exchange water softening

Ivan Tikhonov The article deals with the problem of operational control of the process of ion water softening. The dependence of the electrical conductivity of water on its hardness value for the water softening process is presented. The article presents a control system for the water softening installation based on programmable relay. The results of […]

Determining the pH value of water without using a pH meter

Determining the pH value of water without using a pH meter

Ivan Tikhonov Annotation The article presents a method for calculating the pH value of water based on the carbon dioxide balance of water. An example from the author’s practice is presented. The pH value of natural water is usually determined by the ratio of various forms of carbon dioxide found in its composition. Various forms […]

The water quality control for high-pressure steam boilers

The water quality control for high-pressure steam boilers

Ivan Tikhonov Almost completely desalinated water is required to be used for feeding steam boilers with the pressure of more than 14 MPa. The salt content of feed water in terms of Na should be no more than 50 mcg/kg, and for direct-flow boilers no more than 20 mcg/kg. The pH value of such water […]

The monitoring of the water-chemical mode of low-pressure steam boilers using the pH value of boiler water

The monitoring of the water-chemical mode of low-pressure steam boilers using the pH value of boiler water

Ivan Tikhonov This article describes the technology of boiler water quality control with the control of the pH value of boiler water and the value of its electrical conductivity. Examples of this control are provided. The conditions under which this control is sufficiently effective are specified.   Is it possible to control the entire water-chemical […]

The influence of various forms of carbon dioxide in water on its pH value

The influence of various forms of carbon dioxide in water on its pH value

Ivan Tikhonov Annotation This article discusses the existence of various forms of carbon dioxide in water. The importance of measuring the pH value in determining the ratios of bicarbonates, carbonates and hydrates is shown. The article presents a method for calculating the pH value of water depending on the ratio of various forms of carbon […]

The features of operation of a mixed bed ion exchanger in the process of water desalination

The features of operation of a mixed bed ion exchanger in the process of water desalination

Ivan Tikhonov This article discusses the influence of carbon dioxide contained in water on the process of ion exchange desalination of water with a mixed bed ion exchange resin. Experimental data are presented. Recommendations are given for conducting the desalination process using a mixed bed ion exchange resin.  The main indicator of the quality of […]

The calculation of the universal index of water saturation with calcium carbonate

The calculation of the universal index of water saturation with calcium carbonate

Ivan Tikhonov The article presents a method for calculating the pH value, which corresponds to the saturation of water by calcium carbonate and compares this pH value with the pH value obtained by calculating with Langelier saturation index and Stiff & Davis index. Corrosion and scale formation are the main problems in the usage of […]

The influence of ion composition of water on its electrical conductivity

The influence of ion composition of water on its electrical conductivity

Ivan Tikhonov In this article I will try to tell you how the ionic composition of water affects the value of electrical conductivity and how justified is the use of the generally accepted conversion factors of electrical conductivity of water into the salt content of water (in the range of 0.5-0.55) for the vast majority […]

On the issue of sludge and scale formation in a steam boiler

On the issue of sludge and scale formation in a steam boiler

Ivan Tikhonov Having worked for many years with water-chemical modes of steam boilers of low and medium pressure, I have noticed that even if the feed water does not meet all the requirements of the boiler manufacturers, it does not always lead to failure of the boiler (damage to the heating surfaces of the boiler […]

The features of the development and maintenance of water-chemical mode of low-pressure steam boilers using membrane technologies

The features of the development and maintenance of water-chemical mode of low-pressure steam boilers using membrane technologies

Ivan Tikhonov The water – chemical mode (WCM) of steam boilers must provide effective and reliable operation of a boiler house.  In fact, this is achieved by creating conditions that exclude possible processes of scale formation or various corrosion damage of equipment and pipelines. These conditions are created with the help of water treatment systems, […]

The assessment of the effect of carbon dioxide on the water-chemical modes of steam boilers

The assessment of the effect of carbon dioxide on the water-chemical modes of steam boilers

Ivan Tikhonov In the design and operation of low-pressure steam boilers there is a number of significant difficulties in the organization of water-chemical mode (WCM) of their work. Water-chemical mode (WCM) of operation of a steam boiler should ensure trouble-free and cost-effective operation of the equipment and pipelines of the boiler. WCM of a boiler […]

The use of technical salt (mineral halite) in the regeneration technology of modern automatic Na-softening filters

The use of technical salt (mineral halite) in the regeneration technology of modern automatic Na-softening filters

Ivan Tikhonov The consumption of salt for the regeneration of Na-softening filters is one of the most expensive items in the operation of water treatment equipment. Modern water softening systems are fully automated. The operator only needs to add salt to the feeder (salt solvent tank) after it has been consumed. Modern valves automatic control […]

Water degassing using reverse osmosis membranes

Water degassing using reverse osmosis membranes

Tikhonov I.A. The presence of dissolved corrosive gases CO2 and O2 in water causes corrosion of equipment and pipelines. As the water temperature increases, the mobility of oxygen molecules increases, and the corrosive aggressiveness of water increases. The problem of removing oxygen and carbon dioxide from water is solved mainly in two ways. It is […]

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