Articles

Waste water from the Na ion exchange plant. Composition. Disposal method.

Waste water from the Na ion exchange plant. Composition. Disposal method.

Ivan Tikhonov Na – cation exchange water softening is perhaps the most common process for preparing water for various industrial and drinking purposes. The meaning of this process is that dissolved polyvalent ions are replaced by sodium ions in water. As a result, the water softens and heavy metals are removed from the water. This […]

Calculation of the make-up water consumption for the water-cooling (circulation) circuit of a wet cooling tower

Calculation of the make-up water consumption for the water-cooling (circulation) circuit of a wet cooling tower

Ivan Tikhonov Make-up water consumption for a wet cooling tower is determined by the makeup water chemistry. Heat removal in a wet cooling tower occurs due to the evaporation of a part of the water in the cooling tower. As a result of the evaporation, heat is removed from the cooling water. This process is […]

Basics of the water chemical mode of low-pressure steam boilers

Basics of the water chemical mode of low-pressure steam boilers

Ivan Tikhonov In the article, as simply as possible (as it seems to the author), the basics of the water-chemical mode of low-pressure fire-tube steam boilers are presented. The water-chemical mode (WCM) of a steam boiler is an operating complex of technological solutions aimed at ensuring trouble-free and efficient operation of a steam boiler. In […]

Continuous blowdown of the steam boiler based on the alkalinity of the boiler water

Continuous blowdown of the steam boiler based on the alkalinity of the boiler water

Ivan Tikhonov Guidelines for maintaining the water-chemical mode of steam boilers prescribe continuous blowdown of boilers based on dry residue or salt content. For example, RTM 108.030.114-77 (Stationary steam boilers of low and medium pressure. Organization of a water-chemical mode) gives the following formula for calculating the percentage of continuous blowdown based on the boiler […]

A non-mathematician’s view on the theory of electrical conductivity of aqueous solutions of strong electrolytes

A non-mathematician’s view on the theory of electrical conductivity of aqueous solutions of strong electrolytes

Ivan Tikhonov The article describes a method for calculating the specific electrical conductivity of an aqueous solution containing various types of ions. The influence of water on the principle of ion distribution in the volume of water is shown. The author explains why it is impossible to use the values of the equivalent electrical conductivity […]

Water treatment for drinking purposes

Water treatment for drinking purposes

Ivan Tikhonov The article discusses the main methods of water purification for drinking and household needs. Household centralized and decentralized water supply networks are accepted as a source of water supply.  Recommendations on the selection of water treatment equipment and materials are given. It is no secret that the drinking water that enters our home […]

The control of the process of acid ion exchange of water using the value of the specific electrical conductivity of water

The control of the process of acid ion exchange of water using the value of the specific electrical conductivity of water

Ivan Tikhonov Acid ion exchange of water is performed to replace all cations found in water with hydrogen cations (H+). As a result, the following reactions occur on the cation exchange resin in the H-form:   Ca(HCO3)2 +2HR CaR2 + 2H2CO3 Mg(HCO3)2 + 2HR MgR2 + 2H2CO3 NaHCO3 + HR NaR + H2CO3   CaCl2+ […]

Changes in the electrical conductivity of natural water when adding hydrochloric and sulfuric acid to it

Changes in the electrical conductivity of natural water when adding hydrochloric and sulfuric acid to it

Ivan Tikhonov Cooling tower, reverse osmosis, water acidification This article is devoted to the problem of removing bicarbonate from natural water. Bicarbonate can be removed from water by converting it to carbon dioxide. In this case, part of the carbon dioxide dissociates in the water and reduces the pH value of the water. When the […]

The calculation of carbon dioxide concentration in steam condensate

The calculation of carbon dioxide concentration in steam condensate

Ivan Tikhonov Steam condensate is corrosive due to the presence of carbon dioxide in it. As a rule, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the condensate is required to be less than 20 mg/l. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the condensate can be easily determined by knowing the concentration of bicarbonate ion in the […]

Ion exchange water softening. How do I find out if the installation functions properly?

Ion exchange water softening. How do I find out if the installation functions properly?

If you have a water softener at home or you have to work with Na-softener, and it is not possible to make a chemical analysis for hardness, then there is an easy way to find out whether the softener installation functions properly. To do this, it is necessary to measure the electrical conductivity of the […]

The problem of applying of the system of reverse osmosis water desalination for the preparation of feed water for low-pressure steam boilers

The problem of applying of the system of reverse osmosis water desalination for the preparation of feed water for low-pressure steam boilers

Ivan Tikhonov This article presents arguments about the possibility of using reverse osmotic water desalination for water treatment processes in steam boilers. The effectiveness of such systems is shown. Special attention is paid to the problem of increased water discharge when using reverse osmosis. It is shown that in real conditions, with the correct design […]

The method of controlling the process of ion exchange water softening

The method of controlling the process of ion exchange water softening

Ivan Tikhonov The article deals with the problem of operational control of the process of ion water softening. The dependence of the electrical conductivity of water on its hardness value for the water softening process is presented. The article presents a control system for the water softening installation based on programmable relay. The results of […]

Determining the pH value of water without using a pH meter

Determining the pH value of water without using a pH meter

Ivan Tikhonov Annotation The article presents a method for calculating the pH value of water based on the carbon dioxide balance of water. An example from the author’s practice is presented. The pH value of natural water is usually determined by the ratio of various forms of carbon dioxide found in its composition. Various forms […]

The water quality control for high-pressure steam boilers

The water quality control for high-pressure steam boilers

Ivan Tikhonov Almost completely desalinated water is required to be used for feeding steam boilers with the pressure of more than 14 MPa. The salt content of feed water in terms of Na should be no more than 50 mcg/kg, and for direct-flow boilers no more than 20 mcg/kg. The pH value of such water […]

The monitoring of the water-chemical mode of low-pressure steam boilers using the pH value of boiler water

The monitoring of the water-chemical mode of low-pressure steam boilers using the pH value of boiler water

Ivan Tikhonov This article describes the technology of boiler water quality control with the control of the pH value of boiler water and the value of its electrical conductivity. Examples of this control are provided. The conditions under which this control is sufficiently effective are specified.   Is it possible to control the entire water-chemical […]

The influence of various forms of carbon dioxide in water on its pH value

The influence of various forms of carbon dioxide in water on its pH value

Ivan Tikhonov Annotation This article discusses the existence of various forms of carbon dioxide in water. The importance of measuring the pH value in determining the ratios of bicarbonates, carbonates and hydrates is shown. The article presents a method for calculating the pH value of water depending on the ratio of various forms of carbon […]

The features of operation of a mixed bed ion exchanger in the process of water desalination

The features of operation of a mixed bed ion exchanger in the process of water desalination

Ivan Tikhonov This article discusses the influence of carbon dioxide contained in water on the process of ion exchange desalination of water with a mixed bed ion exchange resin. Experimental data are presented. Recommendations are given for conducting the desalination process using a mixed bed ion exchange resin.  The main indicator of the quality of […]

The calculation of the universal index of water saturation with calcium carbonate

The calculation of the universal index of water saturation with calcium carbonate

Ivan Tikhonov The article presents a method for calculating the pH value, which corresponds to the saturation of water by calcium carbonate and compares this pH value with the pH value obtained by calculating with Langelier saturation index and Stiff & Davis index. Corrosion and scale formation are the main problems in the usage of […]

The influence of ion composition of water on its electrical conductivity

The influence of ion composition of water on its electrical conductivity

Ivan Tikhonov In this article I will try to tell you how the ionic composition of water affects the value of electrical conductivity and how justified is the use of the generally accepted conversion factors of electrical conductivity of water into the salt content of water (in the range of 0.5-0.55) for the vast majority […]

On the issue of sludge and scale formation in a steam boiler

On the issue of sludge and scale formation in a steam boiler

Ivan Tikhonov Having worked for many years with water-chemical modes of steam boilers of low and medium pressure, I have noticed that even if the feed water does not meet all the requirements of the boiler manufacturers, it does not always lead to failure of the boiler (damage to the heating surfaces of the boiler […]

The features of the development and maintenance of water-chemical mode of low-pressure steam boilers using membrane technologies

The features of the development and maintenance of water-chemical mode of low-pressure steam boilers using membrane technologies

Ivan Tikhonov The water – chemical mode (WCM) of steam boilers must provide effective and reliable operation of a boiler house.  In fact, this is achieved by creating conditions that exclude possible processes of scale formation or various corrosion damage of equipment and pipelines. These conditions are created with the help of water treatment systems, […]

The assessment of the effect of carbon dioxide on the water-chemical modes of steam boilers

The assessment of the effect of carbon dioxide on the water-chemical modes of steam boilers

Ivan Tikhonov In the design and operation of low-pressure steam boilers there is a number of significant difficulties in the organization of water-chemical mode (WCM) of their work. Water-chemical mode (WCM) of operation of a steam boiler should ensure trouble-free and cost-effective operation of the equipment and pipelines of the boiler. WCM of a boiler […]

The use of technical salt (mineral halite) in the regeneration technology of modern automatic Na-softening filters

The use of technical salt (mineral halite) in the regeneration technology of modern automatic Na-softening filters

Ivan Tikhonov The consumption of salt for the regeneration of Na-softening filters is one of the most expensive items in the operation of water treatment equipment. Modern water softening systems are fully automated. The operator only needs to add salt to the feeder (salt solvent tank) after it has been consumed. Modern valves automatic control […]

Water degassing using reverse osmosis membranes

Water degassing using reverse osmosis membranes

Tikhonov I.A. The presence of dissolved corrosive gases CO2 and O2 in water causes corrosion of equipment and pipelines. As the water temperature increases, the mobility of oxygen molecules increases, and the corrosive aggressiveness of water increases. The problem of removing oxygen and carbon dioxide from water is solved mainly in two ways. It is […]

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